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Expanding the Shrunken Soul 

False Humility, Ressentiment, and Magnanimity 



Dean Brackley, SJ. 



BX3701 .S88x 

Studies in the spirituality of Jesuits. 

Issue: v.34:no.4(2002:Sept.) 

Arrival Date: 10/22/2002 

O'Neill Periodicals 



34/4 • SEPTEMBER 2002 



THE SEMINAR ON JESUIT SPIRITUALITY 

The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in 
the United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and prac- 
tice of Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the 
members of the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALrTY OF 
JESUITS. This is done in the spirit of Vatican II's recommendation that religious 
institutes recapture the original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the 
circumstances of modern times. The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in 
regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits 
of the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other 
regions, to other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the 
journal, while meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. 
Others who may find it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 



CURRENT MEMBERS OF THE SEMINAR 

Robert L. Bireley, S.J., teaches history at Loyola University, Chicago, IL (2001). 

Richard A. Blake, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he 
teaches film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2002). 

Claudio M. Burgaleta, S.J., is executive director of Estudios Pastorales para la 
Nueva Evangelizacion, in Oceanside, NY (2002). 

James F. Keenan, S.J., teaches moral theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theol- 
ogy, Cambridge, MA (2000). 

Lawrence J. Madden, S.J., directs the Georgetown Center for Liturgy, Washing- 
ton, DC (2001). 

Douglas W. Marcouiller, S.J., teaches economics at Boston College, Chestnut 
Hill, MA (2000). 

G. Ronald Murphy, S.J., teaches German language and literature at Georgetown 
University, Washington, DC (2001). 

Thomas P. O'Malley, S.J., is associate dean of arts and sciences and teaches in 
the honors program at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (2000). 

Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., teaches theology at Loyola Marymount University, Los 
Angeles, CA (2002). 

William R. Rehg, S.J., teaches philosophy at St. Louis University, St. Louis, 
MO (2000). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2002 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 
3601 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63108 
(Tel. 314-977-7257; Fax 314-977-7263) 



EXANDING THE SHRUNKEN SOUL 

False Humility, Ressentiment, 
and Magnanimity 






Dean Brackley, SJ. 






STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS 

34/4 • SEPTEMBER 2002 



The first word . . 

Guido "The Lobster" Padomonte drives a $200,000 customized vintage Lamborghini into 
Big Al's neighborhood gas station. "The Lobster" is known for putting the squeeze on delinquent 
clients of the corporation. Big Al, owner, proprietor, resident mechanic and windshield washer, is 
currently wrestling with a fan belt under the hood of a 1978 Ford pick-up. The Lobster honks. 
Big Al wipes his hands on the bib of his overalls and whistles through his teeth in admiration of 
the vision of chrome and steel before him. He approaches his visitor's means of conveyance 
reverentially. 

The Lobster peels away his Gucci sunglasses and fixes Big Al with his dark eyes. Muted 
trumpet music in the background. "The company wants you should take care of the car," rasps 
the driver, his voice a hoarse whisper worthy of Eastwood imitating Brando. 

"What's the matter with it?" asks Big Al. 

"Nothing. I been taking care of it myself, and it works real good just as it is." 

"Real good," he says! The twelve-cylinder engine purrs like a kitten in silk pajamas. Big 
Al feels a mustache of perspiration sprout on his upper Up. He says nothing, but his look reveals 
some puzzlement, if not apprehension. His shoes suddenly seem several sizes too large for his feet. 

"No problems with the car, but we want you should do for it anyway," insists the 
stranger with an unmistakable tone of insistence in his voice. Big Al recognizes an offer he can't 
refuse, even if he wants to. But he doesn't want to. Tending to a car like this is every mechanic's 
dream of NASCAR heaven. It beats 1978 Ford fan belts any day. 

Working stiff that he is, Big Al is no fool. He realizes that there is very little he can do 
to improve this magnificent Lambo; but any slip of the wrench, any scratch on a fender or any 
innovative spot on the leopard-skin upholstery could bring consequences of the direst sort to his 
physical well-being. The Lobster and his employers in the corporation are known in the neighbor- 
hood for their exacting standards. 

STUDIES has just been parked at my place of employment. Like Big Al, I turn from the 
well-smudged screen of my eight-year-old word processor, wipe my sweaty hands on the front of a 
coffee-stained T-shirt, and ponder the arrival of this wonder with seriously conflicted emotions. 
Surely, it's a great privilege to assume responsibility for a twelve-cylinder, teakwood-trimmed 
journal of legendary reputation; but what if I accidentally back the Ford into it? Consequences: 
dire. 

One might hesitate, if only for an instant, to think of its previous editor, Fr. John W. 
Padberg, S.J., in the context of dons, wheel men, and Lamborghinis. That said, he has taken 
loving care of this prized periodical for the past sixteen years, while running up fully eighty issues 
on the odometer. Both STUDIES and the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality have been operating under 
his expert maintenance for so long that it is hard to imagine that it takes any oversight or muscu- 
lar persuasion to ensure that it works at all. These twin enterprises have become such a routine 
service in the life of American Jesuits that it comes as a surprise to realize that someone actually 



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works at them, and more importantly, occasionally puts the crustacean crush of a velvet claw on 
others to keep the project moving along. 

Collaboration is the key to John's oversight of this Assistancy project. His achievements 
as a scholar, author, and editor have been appropriately cataloged elsewhere; but in this transition 
period of the Seminar, Fr. Padberg's personal leadership skills as director of the project demand 
some recognition. Each year on average three new people come on board, and after three years 
they are gone. The chairman keeps the crew in the same canoe and rowing in the same direction, 
at least most of the time. With this new cast of characters every year, each bringing unique 
background and talent to the work, John has provided the continuity. He has fostered the quality 
and variety of these monographs over the years by inspiring, cajoling, and at times squeezing the 
Seminar members to reach into their own professional backgrounds and experience of life in the 
Society in order to produce an essay that others will find refreshing and challenging. 

Think of it. It's difficult enough to encourage Jesuits living in the same house to take 
time to discuss the really important issues in their fives at a community meeting. How much more 
challenging to gather men from different parts of the country, with different backgrounds and 
engaged in different ministries, and have them thrash out their ideas in a frank discussion. The 
manuscripts and dialogs feed each other. As a result, members of the Seminar, diverse as they are, 
come to appreciate their common roots in Ignatian spirituality. 

Those who know John Padberg appreciate his vast knowledge of the history of the 
Society of Jesus, down to the most delicious gossipy detail of "personality conflicts" and fraternal 
"differences of opinion" throughout the centuries. His scholarship will be missed, surely; but 
reference libraries and consultation with other scholars, Jesuits and lay colleagues alike, can help 
us overcome that loss. We'll miss most of all his steady leadership and the occasional pinch of the 
famed velvet claw that encourages contributors to get manuscripts prepared in due season. 

Big Al, as sole mechanic on site, had every reason to be nervous about his future as 
custodian of the corporation's Lamborghini. Fortunately, the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality is not 
a one-man operation. This year we welcome two new master mechanics to the shop on Gasoline 
Alley. 

Fr. Thomas Rausch is the T. Marie Chilton Professor of Catholic Theology and chair of 
the department at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. His astonishing fist of publica- 
tions demonstrates a wide range of interests and expertise; and most recently he has become 
involved in dialog between Catholics and Evangelical Christians. 

Fr. Claudio Burgaleta, also a theologian by trade, is a member of the New York Prov- 
ince currently based at St. Anthony's parish in Oceanside, N.Y. He is executive director of EPNE 
(Estudios Pastorales para la Nueva Evangefizacion), a program in Ignatian spirituality serving the 
needs of various Latino communities in the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area. Even 
before attending fiis first meeting, Claudio lias been exploring ways for the Seminar to take 
advantage of the Internet to further the effectiveness of the ministry. I'm sure we'll have some- 
thing online in the near future. Any suggestions? Send them to Claudio. 

Finally, this present issue is a healthy reminder that the work of the Seminar is not 
limited to its current members. Fr. Dean Brackley contributed "Downward Mobility: Social 
Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards" (STUDIES 20, no. 1 [January 1988]) while he was a 
member. His encore performance in this issue reflects his experience in social ministry in the 
Bronx, N.Y. and his engagement with theological and social thinking in Central America since 
that time. Dean has been teaching theology at the Universidad Centroamericana in San Salvador, 



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where he was assigned in 1990, shortly after the murders of our Jesuit brothers on the scene. This 
monograph reached its final stage after an exhilarating (and exhausting) discussion with the 
Seminar last May. I'm sure our readers will find it equally stimulating. 

Those unobtrusive three short paragraphs on the inside front cover provide a kind of 
mission statement for the Seminar and for STUDIES. As the description of our goals suggests, we 
have an abundance of riches to draw from in our reflections on Jesuit traditions as they continu- 
ally adapt to changing circumstances. Paradoxically, as our numbers in the United States decrease, 
we have become even richer as we share this heritage more fully with the men and women who 
have joined us in our many apostolates. I hope that future issues will continue to reflect this 
splendid diversity that continues to make Ignatian spirituality an effective animating force in the 
contemporary Church. 

At least Big Al and his buddies will do their best to see that the company doesn't have 
to send the Lobster back to put the squeeze on us. 



Richard A. Blake, SJ. 
Editor 



v 



NEW ADDRESSES! 

When corresponding with 

Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits, 

Send all editorial correspondence to 

Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 
The Jesuit Institute 
104 College Road 
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 

Tel: 617-552-0860 
Fax: 617-552-2977 
E-mail: fleminpb@bc.edu 

Send all subscription correspondence 
and address corrections to 

The Institute of Jesuit Sources 
3601 Lindell Blvd. 
St. Louis, MO 63108 

Tel: 314-977-7262 
Fax: 314-977-7263 
E-mail: pedrottif@juno.com 



CONTENTS 



Introduction 1 

A Fearful Humility 5 

Temptations and Their Times 9 

Ressentiment 10 

Facing Different Dangers at Once 16 

Charting a Postmodern Path: Magnanimity 17 

Back and Forward 22 



Vll 



Dean Brackley, S.J., has been a professor of 
theology at Universidad Centoamericana in San Salvador, 
El Salvador, since 1990. After completing his doctorate at 
the University of Chicago Divinity School, he engaged in 
social ministries in the Bronx, New York, and taught 
briefly at Fordham University. In addition to an earlier 
contribution to STUDIES, his published works include 
Divine Revolution: Salvation and Liberation in Catholic 
Thought (Orbis, 1995), "Moral Theology in Latin Amer- 
ica," with Thomas Schubeck, S.J., in Theological Studies 
(March 2002), and "Higher Standards for Higher Educa- 
tion," in Listening: A Journal of Religion and Culture 
(Winter 2002). 



vin 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul 

Humility, Ressentiment, and Magnanimity 



Fostering humility in those who feel themselves already 
oppressed may in fact shrivel the soul's capacity for 
creative engagement with the world. A preoccupation 
with the limitations of one's personal or social situation 
can even lead to a form of spiritual self-destruction. A 
more positive approach to humility involves the gra- 
cious acceptance of God-given values found not only 
in one's own life and social class but also in potentially 
competing individuals and classes as well. 



Introduction 

No one after lighting a lamp puts it under the bushel basket, but on the lamp- 
stand, and it gives light to all in the house. 

-Matt. 5:15 

Love is all you need, just as the Beatles said. On the other hand, 
Dorothy Day liked to remind herself and others that "Love in 
practice is a harsh and dreadful thing compared to love in dreams." 
(She was quoting Dostoyevsky's Father Zossima in The Brothers Karama- 
zov.y Dorothy Day knew that we are all fragile vessels of clay. Ignatius, too, 
understood that love is under permanent siege. The "enemy of our human 
nature" will stop at nothing to prevent a life of serious commitment from 
getting under way, and if it does, to see that it stalls out, or better still, 
reverses direction. Ignatius was a master at diagnosing the strategies of the 
enemy and helping others cooperate with the countermeasures of the good 



1 Dorothy Day, Selected Writings: By Little and by Little, ed. Robert Ellsberg 
(Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1992), 264. 



2 * Dean Brackley, SJ. 



spirit. He knew that temptations can be indirect and well disguised as well as 
straightforward, and that temptations vary greatly depending on both our 
temperament and our maturity. Today we must add that they depend on 
our social context, as well. 

In the Two Standards meditation of the Spiritual Exercises— which is 
pivotal for Ignatian spirituality— Ignatius teaches that the enemy typically 
tempts people first to riches and honors, in order to lead them to arrogant 
pride and from there to all other vices. Christ, for his part, proposes a 
counter-strategy of poverty, humiliations, and humility, from which he leads 
his followers to all other virtues. 2 Fourteen years ago I argued in this journal 
that by "riches" Ignatius means material riches; that by pride he means 
arrogant self-importance; and that by humility he means not only recogni- 
tion of our dependence on God but also a sense that we are no more 
important than other people, especially those whom the world considers 
unimportant. On this basis I suggested a close affinity between the enemy's 
standard and the contemporary gospel of upward social mobility; and I 
translated the way of Christ as downward mobility and solidarity with the 
outcast. 3 

Time and further reflection have strengthened my belief in the 
soundness of this interpretation and the relevance of the Two Standards for 
today. As I observe my surroundings and read the news, it seems evident to 
me that riches, honors, and pride do make the world go 'round. And 
solidarity with the outcast now seems more important than ever for authen- 
tic living, for discipleship, and for making the world a more livable place. 
Since 1988, however, I have also come to appreciate that these two standards 
are not the whole story either. Like many others, I sense that our contempo- 
raries, including Christians and Jesuits, also frequently face the rather 
different dangers of false humility, self-negation, and small-mindedness. 
However much we might need humility— and we surely do — these other 
maladies cry out for big-mindedness and appreciation of one's own inner 
authority— in a word, magnanimity. In its most authentic form, magnanim- 
ity is that sense of our own dignity, and of our acceptance by God despite 
our failings, that produces inner freedom, generosity, and even a healthy 
sense of humor. Without humility, we elbow others aside. But without 
magnanimity, we bury our talent in a napkin. 



The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius, trans, and ed. with commentary by 
George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992), marginal nos. 142, 146. 
Hereafter this source will be abbreviated to SpEx. 

Dean Brackley, S.J., "Downward Mobility: The Social Implications of St. 
Ignatius's 'Two Standards,'" Studies 20, no. 1 Qanuary 1988), 1-50. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul 4* 3 






Like many before him, Ignatius considered humility to be the font 
of all virtue. 4 He also regarded humiliations as a privileged means both to 
humility and to the obedience he considered so fundamental to discipleship. 
In the Spiritual Exercises, for example, the ideal of the Third Kind of Humil- 
ity (SpEx 167) echoes the insistent prayer to be received under the standard 
of Christ in poverty and humiliations. Many more examples from the 
Constitutions, Ignatius's letters, and what others reported about him demon- 
strate the central importance he attached to humility and humiliations. 

This insistence on humility and, especially, humiliations jars con- 
temporary sensibilities. It is obvious that appeals like this can serve, and 
have served, to keep underdogs in their place. Shall we recommend poverty, 
humiliations, and humility to everyone everywhere today — to the humiliated 
as well as the self-important? More generally, is riches-honors-pride every- 
body's chief moral nemesis? Or are some people more liable to different 
patterns of temptation, perhaps more subtle patterns? And if so, where does 
that leave the Two Standards meditation as Ignatius shaped it? 

It is doubtful that 

riches-honors-pride constitutes 

the gravest spiritual danger for 

people whose self-esteem has / sense that our contemporaries, in- 
been pummeled by discrimina- eluding Christians and Jesuits, also 
tion. In a now classic article, frequently face the rather different 
Valerie Saiving makes the case dangers of false humility, self nega- 
tor women, but I think her ft0Wj an j small-mindedness. 
central point applies more 

broadly. Saiving questions the "^^^— ^^^~^^~^^^^^^—^^^~^~ 
long-standing tradition of 
identifying sin with self-assertive pride and love with self-sacrifice. 5 She 



4 Pride is the root of all sin. Humility is its remedy and the root of all virtue. 
The humility of God-become-flesh and of Christ crucified is the model for our own. The 
Fathers of the Church codified these theses for subsequent ages. "For Basil, Augustine, 
John Chrysostom, and other classical Fathers, pride is the root and archetype of all sin. 
. . . According to the Christian story, the one remedy for the disease of pride ... is the 
humility of a God who has 'come down' out of love to be one with us and to draw us, in 
humility, to himself" (Brian E. Daley, " 'To Be More like Christ': The Background and 
Implications of 'Three Kinds of Humility,'" Studies 27, no. 1 [January 1995], 9). In this 
article Daley traces the history of the tradition. 

Valerie Saiving, "The Human Situation: A Feminine View," in Womanspirit 
Rising: A Feminist Reading in Religion, ed. Judith P. Christ and Judith Plaskow (San 
Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979), 25-42. The pioneering work of Katherine Dyckman, 
Mary Garvin, Elizabeth Liebert, The Spiritual Exercises Reclaimed: Uncovering Liberating 



4 •!• Dean Brackley, SJ. 



argues that while pride is the typical problematic response of men to their 
personal insecurity, women's primary temptation is instead "underdevelop- 
ment or negation of the self." Measuring themselves by others' criteria, 
women frequently fail to develop into the well-defined individuals they 
could be. Submerging their own agendas in others', many keep the genie of 
"divine discontent" (Saiving's words) bottled up inside them. This can lead 
them to "love too much," responding to every immediate need with scant 
discretion, to the point of living without a clear focus and losing themselves 
in trivialities. 

Exhortations to humility probably won't be the chief need of these 
women. They probably need instead to learn to honor their inner authority 
more— loving, by all means, but in wiser and more fruitful ways. 

Saiving points out the gender-based forces behind different propensi- 
ties of men and women: Biology and the different kinds of social interaction 
experienced by girls and boys tend to intensify men's personal insecurity and 
the creative drive more than they do women's. 6 While I acknowledge these 
factors, I am impressed at the same time by the way much of the malaise 

Saiving describes also characterizes many 
of the oppressed and humiliated people — 

7- women and men alike — that I have known 

gnatius recognized that over the years. A good deal of what she 

people can douse their s ^ s desc, ; lbes tbe . sit J uatioi J of P oor P eo P le r 

n in general, exploited workers, victims of 

inner flume. . . . 

3 racism and heterosexism, handicapped peo- 

pie, and others who lack self-esteem be- 
cause they have interiorized society's preju- 
dices. Not everyone in those groups "loves too much" or submerges his or 
her identity chameleon-like in someone else's agenda. But many let them- 
selves be persuaded that they don't count for much, that they don't have 
much to say or much of a mission in life. They stifle their inner voice; they 
fail to speak and act when they should do so. Some yield to the temptation 
to function as a pilot fish to some strong shark. 

Nor is this syndrome restricted to the oppressed. Plenty of the more 
privileged of this world — straight white males, for example — suffer their own 



Possibilities for Women (New York: Paulist Press, 2001), develops the same general point, 
explaining on pp. 163-66 how others have drawn on Saiving's line of thought. 

6 Saiving appeals to the common argument that boys need to struggle to 
distinguish themselves from their mothers, who are their primary caregivers in infancy, in 
ways that girls do not; and that boys and men experience the need to perform and to 
affirm their psychosexual identity in ways that girls and women do not. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul H- 5 



versions of this malady. Many of us men who strive to live the Gospel, 
Jesuits included, confuse humility with self-negation. We clip our own 
wings, or let others clip them. We remain silent when we should speak out, 
and inactive when bold action is called for. Over time, like T. S. Eliot's 
Prufrock, we can wind up measuring out our lives with coffee-spoons. 7 

In community and workplace, do we take a back seat by default, 
and let dominant members drive us where we don't want to go? Do routine 
and fear prevent us from undertaking new challenges? Does our weakness 
sometimes lead us to disparage the values of the strong? Do we carp against 
authorities rather than engage them constructively? Do we avoid taking 
reasonable risks for fear of making mistakes? Do we recoil from the messy 
ambiguity of institutions, especially powerful ones, preferring instead to lob 
in resentful grenades from outside? 

Immense challenges face the Church and the wider human commu- 
nity today: the service of faith in the face of growing cynicism and funda- 
mentalisms; the ever-growing gap between rich and poor; spreading violence 
and social disintegration; environmental crises and now recovery from the 
sex-abuse scandals. These challenges should certainly inspire humility in us, 
but not the false humility that leads us to bury our talents in a napkin. The 
times call for imagination, creativity, and bold action. What resources does 
Ignatian spirituality offer against the temptation to think small? 

A Fearful Humility 

Then the one who had received the one talent also came forward, saying, 
"Master, I knew that you were a harsh man, reaping where you did not sow, 
and gathering where you did not scatter seed; so I was afraid, and I went and 
hid your talent in the ground. " 

-Matt. 25:24 f. 

Ignatius recognized that people can douse their inner flame. The enemy 
usually tempts to riches, honors, and then pride, but not always. Writing to 
Teresa Rejadell in 1536, Ignatius described a different dynamic that commit- 
ted people undergo, one to which he believed Teresa herself had succumbed: 
The enemy leads good people into a false humility and such a fixation on 
their own moral poverty that they come to feel themselves abandoned by 



See T. S. Eliot, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," in his Complete Poems 
and Plays, 1909-1950 (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1962). 



6 •!• Dean Brackley, SJ. 



God. 8 Ignatius told Teresa that a person usually experiences this subtle 
assault after having fought off two more-straightforward temptations: When 
someone is moving from a life of vice to one of virtue or facing the prospect 
of a costly sacrifice, the enemy first brings to mind how much privation this 
will entail; but he never recalls the consolations that accompany such a 
commitment. (This is a typical situation for the first series of Rules for 
Discernment, those suited to the First Week of the Exercises, nos. 313-27.) 
If that tactic fails, the enemy then tempts the person to holier-than-thou 
vainglory. However, if both these direct temptations fail, the enemy fre- 
quently resorts to a more subtle two-step strategy, leading first to false 
humility and then to a sense of worthlessness and abandonment by God. 
This last dynamic has affinities with the pattern Valerie Saiving describes. 

The two-step temptation works as follows. First, the enemy gets us 
to deny the good that God works in us— in more secular language, to deny 
any good in ourselves. For example, when we do something good or when 
the idea of a worthwhile project occurs to us, we feel it would be arrogant 

to attribute these to God's work in us, 
^_ B ^_^^_^ M __ M _ that is, to speak of good in ourselves. So, 

we refuse to credit our good works or take 
These challenges should our ideas and desires seriously. This is "a 

certainly inspire humility false humility, that is, an extreme and viti- 

in US, but not the false ated humility." It is actually "a fear with 

humility that leads us to the appearance of humility." 9 

bury our talents in a nap- From there, the enemy easily 

kin. The times call for leads a step farther— into the fear that since 

imagination, creativity, we are evil, God has abandoned us. Build- 

and bold action. ing on our sensitive moral conscience (per- 

haps a tender post-conversion conscience), 
— — -^^^— the enemy draws us into imagining we 
have done wrong when we have not, and 
provokes desolation in us. Focusing "a too-prolonged gaze at such times on 
our miseries" leads us to believe, writes Ignatius, "that we are quite separated 
from [God] and that all that we have done and all that we desire to do is 



Letter of June 18, 1536, in Obras de san Ignacio de Loyola, ed. Ignacio 
Iparraguirre, S.I., Candido de Dalmases, S.I., and Manuel Ruiz Jurado, S.I., 5th ed. 
(Madrid: B.A.C., 1991), 729-34; also see Letters of St. Ignatius of Loyola, selected and trans, 
by William J. Young, S.J. (Chicago: Loyola University, 1959), 18-24. 

Iparraguirre, Obras, 731; emphasis added. Ignatius takes for granted that "we 
must attribute all the good" in ourselves to God working in us (Young, Letters, 18). 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 

entirely worthless." 10 In this way the enemy undermines our trust in God 
and our self-esteem. 

Fear and discouragement betray the presence of the enemy in this 
process and the counterfeit nature of this "humility." While genuine humil- 
ity is loving rather than fearful, false humility shrinks the soul. 11 We begin 
to think small and lose ourselves in little things. 

How should we respond to such a syndrome once we recognize it? 
Ignatius's advice is revealing: Humbling ourselves is the last thing we need in 
this situation. When tempted to arrogant pride, we should humble ourselves; 
but when tempted to deny the good in us, we should lift ourselves up, 
recalling the good that God has placed in us and achieved in us. 12 

These tactics of the enemy keep people from acting on their inner 
authority, which often coincides with the divine Spirit. Small wonder that, 
in this same letter to Sor Teresa, Ignatius reviews the principles he laid down 
in the Spiritual Exercises for people prone to scrupulosity, or more accu- 
rately, to excessive self-doubt in moral matters (SpEx 345-51). He tells Teresa 
that the enemy tries to make such people see defects where there are none, 
in order to harass them and even drive them to desperation. 

In the Exercises, he goes on to elaborate: While some people have lax 
consciences and are insensitive to evil, others are hypersensitive to evil. And 
just as the bad spirit tries to make the lax conscience still more lax, it pushes 
those with a "delicate" conscience into extreme sensitivity and exaggerated 
fear of doing wrong. This not only causes them anguish; it keeps them from 
doing all the good they might. For God often inspires good and sensitive 
people to undertake bold initiatives. However, the hypersensitive are subject 
to paralyzing self-doubt and second thoughts that keep them from translat- 
ing sound inspirations into action. They spontaneously ask themselves 
questions like, "Am I really seeking my own glory?" "Will this cause scan- 
dal?" "Would the safer way be to back off, or at least wait?" "Couldn't x, y, 



Young, Letters, 22. 

See Ignatius's reflections on loving humility vs. fearful humility in his Spiritual 
Diary (Diario Espiritual), nos. 178 f., 181 f, and 187 (Iparraguirre, Obras, 408-11). "During 
this period of time I kept on thinking that humility, reverence, and affectionate awe ought 
to be not fearful but loving. ... I begged over and over again: 'Give me loving humility, 
and with it reverence and affectionate awe'" {Ignatius of Loyola: The Spiritual Exercises and 
Selected Works, ed. George E. Ganss, S.J. [New York: Paulist, 1991], 263 f.). 

"Hence we must examine the matter closely; and if the enemy uplifts us, we 
must abase ourselves by recounting our sins and miseries. If he keeps us down and 
depresses us, we must raise ourselves up in true faith and hope in our Lord" (Young, 
Letters, 20). 



8 •!• Dean Brackley, SJ. 

or 2 go wrong?" A later generation of moralists would say that in this way 
they fall into the practical heresy of "tutiorism," that is, of seeking to avoid 
moral risk by always following the "safer" (tutior) path, or of clinging to the 
more probable authority (probabiliorism). 

Ignatius's solution for the person of delicate conscience, as for the 
lax person, is to act against the tendency to excess. So, while the lax person 
should become more sensitive to evil, the scrupulous person should become 
more "lax," but in a distinctive way. Faced with what appears to be a moral 
dilemma, such a person should make a reasonable decision and then stay that 
course, resisting second thoughts and self-doubts in order to remain at peace. 
More interesting for our present concerns, Ignatius counsels that unless there 
is a clear reason to question one's original plans, the person should, as a rule, 
resist doubts and fears and follow through on the first inspiration (see SpEx 
351). For the hypersensitive person, the original inspiration is innocent until 
proved otherwise, especially when it arises directly from consolation. 

Ignatius wrote to Sor Teresa: "For it frequently happens that our 
Lord moves and urges the soul to this or that activity. He begins by enlight- 
ening the soul; that is to say, by speaking interiorly to it without the din of 
words, lifting it up wholly to his divine love and ourselves to his meaning." 
After this original inspiration, says Ignatius, we must be careful, because the 
enemy can induce us to add to it without warrant. But the opposite error is 
also common: "At other times, [the enemy] makes us lessen the import of 
the message we have received and confronts us with obstacles and difficulties, 
so as to prevent us from carrying out completely what had been made 
known to us." 13 For some, it is self-doubt and exaggerated fear that keep 
them from following through. They should rather doubt their doubts and 
fears, which usually do not proceed from the Good Spirit. Unless they are 
checked, they undermine peace and quash fruitful action. 

The children of this age pursue their goals with greater zeal than the 
children of light. It is no small matter when false humility prevents people 
from doing great things for God. That goes fully counter to the spirit of the 
magis. It leads to sins of omission. It frustrates the kind of bold initiatives 
our times call for. It is hard not to see in this syndrome a failure to live out 
the Pauline gospel of freedom: People cling to the "safety" of law rather 



See Iparraguirre, Obras, 733; Young, Letters, 22 f. The text suggests that 
Ignatius may have in mind either consolation without prior cause (see SpEx 330, 336) or 
the "first time" for making an "election" (see SpEx 175), or both. In any case, Ignatius's 
subsequent observations are illuminating for more ordinary cases as well. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •%> 9 



than dare to live by the Spirit, who, by means of consolation, inspires 
people to act. 

Temptations and Their Times 

For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven: . . . 
a time to kill and a time to heal; 
a time to break down, and a time to build up; 
a time to weep, and a time to laugh; 
a time to mourn and a time to dance; . . . 

— Eccles. 3:1-4 

JL emptation strikes where we are vulnerable, and we are not all vulnerable 
in the same places (see SpEx 327). What constitutes a real temptation for me 
will depend on my temperament and my maturity. Besides that, the logic of 
temptation also depends on social conditions — more than people supposed in 
the past. And, naturally, social conditions vary greatly. 

Our personalities are formed in interaction with society. Society's 
values and antivalues take shape in us as virtues and vices. 14 Since our 
internal weaknesses— moral and psychological— are partly the product of 
socialization, the logic of temptation depends in part on social context. Some 
temptation patterns are surely constant and universal. The Ten Command- 
ments speak to all times and 
places. But the shape and 

weight of particular tempta- People cling to the "safety" of law 

tions, as well as their pattern rather than dare to live by the Spirit, 
and sequence, evolve with wh()i hy mean$ f consolation, 

social and cultural conditions. inspires people to act. 

For example, Ignatius grew up 

in a late-feudal society where ^^^— 

social status was the key to 

wealth and security, rather than the other way around. Honor was a su- 
preme value and a primary temptation. "In the Ignatian world, . . . with its 
conception of the human ideal of medieval knighthood," writes Santiago 
Arzubialde, "honor was the same as life, and to lose one's honor was to lose 
one's life." 15 However, conditions were changing in western Europe at the 



14 See Brackley, "A Radical Ethos," Horizons 24, no.l (Spring 1997): 7-36, and 
Dietmar Mieth and Jacques Pohier, eds., Changing Values and Virtues, Concilium, no. 191 
(1986), especially the essays by John Coleman and Dietmar Mieth. 

Santiago Arzubialde, "Raices de la teologia espiritual en Dos Banderas," 
Manresa 56 (1984): 297. 



10 * Dean Brackley, SJ. 



time and, with them, mores and motivations. The fifteenth-century Spanish 
classic La Celestina records the following observations: 

Pleberio does not say that with honor he became rich, but rather that, with 
his abundant means he acquired honors. . . . Sempronio knows that Celes- 
tina's ambition in her business dealings is none other than to "get rich," and 
he understands that, impelled as he is by the same ambition, he will have to 
contend with her. 16 

A new society was developing around the port cities that Ignatius frequented 
(Barcelona, Genoa, Antwerp, Venice). In this mercantile environment, 
wealth was displacing birthright as the primary key to status and power. 
Riches were a powerful temptation on the road to "swollen pride," as 
Ignatius saw (SpEx 142). In today's capitalist societies as well, honor does not 
constitute the kind of moral problem that it did in traditional societies, but 
covetousness has become more problematic than ever. 17 

Ignatius's contention that riches, then honors, then pride is the 
typical enemy strategy for our undoing certainly remains valid for today. 
But it is not the only temptation complex to which we are exposed. Nor are 
the social forces shaping people today the same as they were in premodern 
times or in Ignatius's day or even thirty years ago. They are probably more 
complex than ever. If so, it should not surprise us that the mix of tempta- 
tion syndromes is correspondingly more complex. I think that one contem- 
porary syndrome, which seems to overlap with false humility and Saiving's 
"feminine syndrome," deserves close attention. I mean ressentiment, meaning, 
roughly, "resentment." 

Ressentiment 

Jesus said, "To what then will I compare the people of this generation, and what 
are they like? They are like children sitting in the marketplace and calling to 
one another, 'We played the flute for you, and you did not dance; we wailed, 
and you did not weep. ' " 

-Luke 7:31 f. 



The passage is cited in Rogelio Garcia Mateo, S.J., "El 'Rey eternal': Etica 
politica y espiritualidad," Manresa 60 (1988): 143 f. 

Jorge Centelles believes Ignatius put riches first before honors in the enemy 
standard for this reason (see Jorge Centelles Vives, "Valor social de 'Dos Banderas,'" 
Manresa 56 [1984]: 71). While this may have contributed to Ignatius's formulation, from 
the very beginning Christian theology consistently placed avarice for riches first in the 
logic of temptation (see 1 Tim. 6:1-10). On the apparent contradiction between pride as 
the beginning of all sin and avarice as the root of all sin, see Brackley, Appendix I: 
"Thomistic Influence on Ignatius's Two Standards," in "Downward Mobility," 41-48. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 11 



Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), and Max Scheler (1874-1928) after him, 
borrowed the French word ressentiment to label a malady of the human 
spirit that they believed to be rampant in modern society. 18 Although I 
think both of them overstated their theses, the ressentiment they diagnosed 
is clearly thriving and spreading in our ultramodern times. Ressentiment is 
the typical temptation of the underdog, the vanquished, and the political 
left. No one escapes completely, however. Who, after all, is not in some 
sense an underdog or a victim today? 

We have all felt ressentiment's morbid sting. Like most adolescents, 
you may have walked the corridors of your high school feeling chronically 
deflated for not being the most charming and popular of students. In re- 
action, maybe you came to consider good looks and easy charm as irrelevant 
and "dressing up" for others as stupid. Or maybe the history you were 
studying seemed such an incoherent swarm of battles and dates that it 
eventually drove you to conclude that history was just "dumb." 

Consider an adult example or two. You might once have accepted 
an invitation to the opera, even though opera never appealed to you in the 
least. As the performance progressed, the more the audience grew enthralled, 
the more you felt uneasy, alone, and alienated. You wondered what they all 
saw in this. You weren't sure whether to consider yourself hopelessly 
uncultured or to pronounce opera highly overrated and opera bufTs a pack of 
pretentious snobs. You longed to get home and kick back with a beer and a 
good film on TV. 

If you are an opera buff, you may once have found yourself at a 
party among rambunctious fans of hunting, twin-carburetor engines, and 
football stars you'd never heard of. As the party progressed, you began to 
imagine your fellow partygoers as dressed in animal skins and carrying clubs. 
You wished you were home cracking open your new best-seller. 

Ressentiment means "resentment," yes, but with nuances. More 
precisely, ressentiment is the sublimated spirit of revenge, the masked and 
muted desire to prevail over one's stronger rival. While envy, jealousy, and 
rivalry can contribute to it, they are not exactly the same. Ressentiment is a 
reaction. In ressentiment, literally "re-feeling," one feels the impotence of 



Friedrich Nietzsche, the first essay in "The Genealogy of Morals" (1887), 
especially sees. 10 and 11, in The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, ed. Oscar Levy 
(New York: Russell & Russell, 1964); see above all pp. 34-38; also see Max Scheler, On 
Ressentiment and Moral Value-judgments (1912), to which I will refer in more detail below. 
A good summary of their positions can be found in the early sections of Patrick H. Byrne, 
"Ressentiment and the Preferential Option for the Poor," Theological Studies 54 (1993): 213-41. 



12 •!• Dean Brackley, SJ. 



frustrating encounters with one's superior rival(s). According to Scheler, one 
experiences a morbid attraction to return again and again to painful defeats. 
As ressentiment feeds on the revisited feeling, it grows and develops, engen- 
dering a painful tension that eventually finds release in the denigration of the 
rival's values and the exaltation of their opposites. Ressentiment leads 
frustrated underdogs to invert all that is valuable to their stronger, more 
attractive, morally superior, more capable or successful rivals. It leads the 
weak to denigrate strength, the unlettered to belittle letters, and the poor to 
disparage wealth and power. Ressentiment leads sinners to debunk virtue and 
losers to redefine winning. It doesn't only affect the way people think. 
Above all, ressentiment modifies their spontaneous reaction (attraction, 
repugnance) to people, practices, and institutions that humiliate them. 

Sometimes defeat can lead people to react lucidly: to unmask false 
values and misplaced priorities. Ressentiment is different; it denigrates 
genuine values, distorting moral perception and value judgments. The 
frustrated desire for revenge recoils on the resentful, poisoning their moral life. 

Although present in any age, ressentiment came into its own in 
modern times, as Nietzsche and Scheler recognized. In traditional society, 
one's rivals could only be one's peers on a social ladder that was extremely 

stable. Very few in France could actually 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ envy the king of France in the sense of 

resenting not being in his place, as though 

Ressentiment is the typical they had a chance to be king. In a socially 

temptation of the under- mobile society, however, everyone has 

dog, the vanquished, and more P otenlial rivals - In principle, paupers 

the political left. can ho P e to chan S e their fate - An inner " 

city youth might aspire to become the 

^ i __^^_^_ - ^^_ next NBA legend or the next Bill Gates. In 

this climate we are all more aware and 

more resentful of successful rivals, especially since, as Scheler pointed out, 

ressentiment is highly contagious. It spreads rapidly through families and 

communities and can infect entire nations or whole generations of people. 

Nietzsche believed that ressentiment had given birth to Christianity 
and that Christianity accounted for its dominance. He considered Christian- 
ity to be the triumph of a "slave-morality" which celebrates defeat, weak- 
ness, failure, and death while disparaging strength, life, creativity, and 
success. Christianity exalts what Nietzsche considered the false virtues of 
humility, altruism, pity, self-control, and long-suffering patience. 

Scheler recognized the brilliance of Nietzsche's "discovery." He 
considered ressentiment to be the wellspring of the value judgments of 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 13 



bourgeois society. 19 However, he rejected Nietzsche's interpretation of 
Christianity. Ressentiment cannot account for Christianity, as Nietzsche 
claimed, even though (for Scheler) it remains perhaps its greatest temptation. 
Genuine love and humility are not the sham Nietzsche thought them to be. 
They are the jewels in the Christian moral crown. But the corruption of the 
best is the worst of all, as the old adage has it. In Rene Girard's incisive 
words, "Ressentiment is the manner in which the spirit of vengeance sur- 
vives the impact of Christianity and turns the Gospels to its use." 20 

Nietzsche's "discovery" of ressentiment threw a pail of cold water 
on those bourgeois European romantics who believed that by acting on their 
spontaneous desires they would make their lives a creative work of art. He 
announced that these desires were neither spontaneous nor authentic but 
expressions of a frustrated will-to-power. Since his time, ressentiment has 
continued to prosper, as sometimes silly controversies over political correct- 
ness demonstrate. It even thrives in poor countries, as the middle-class ethos 
spreads through increasingly urbanized populations. While it surely seduces 
Christians, ressentiment stalks underdogs of all kinds, as well as their allies 
on the political left who oppose inequality and discrimination. 

Of course, unjustified privilege and injustice also call forth justified 
indignation, not just ressentiment. When political constitutions proclaim 
that "all men [and women] are created equal," people rightly resent the 
denial of fundamental rights. During the last 250 years, successive waves of 
humanity have awakened to their dignity as persons with the right to think, 
speak, and act for themselves. The philosophes of the Enlightenment were 
followed by laborers, then women, then colonized peoples, poor nations in 
general, racial minorities, sexual minorities, and lay people in the churches. 
Now, we even voice moral claims on behalf of the nonhuman environment. 
Ressentiment was part of all this, but not the biggest part. Like many of 
their followers today, Nietzsche and Scheler recognized the awakening to 



Max Scheler, El resentimiento en la moral (Buenos Aires: Espasa-Calpe 
Argentina, 1938), 80. Though not as much as Nietzsche, Scheler, too, exaggerated the 
reach of ressentiment, for example, attributing modern humanitarian liberalism almost 
entirely to ressentiment (see Byrne, Ressentiment, chap. 4). He later retreated from that 
sweeping diagnosis. 

' Rene Girard, The Girard Reader, ed. James G. Williams (New York: 
Crossroad, 1996), 252. Girard believes that mimetic (imitative) rivalry, especially with 
one's role models, is at the root of ressentiment. "The impassioned admiration and desire 
to emulate stumble over the unfair obstacle with which the model seems to block the way 
of his disciple, and then these passions recoil on the disciple in the form of impotent 
hatred" (40). 



14 * Dean Brackley, SJ. 



ressentiment, but they failed to appreciate the awakening to dignity. They 
often confused justified indignation with ressentiment. 

It is sheer cynicism to use the ressentiment label to silence the 
prophetic outcry of oppressed people. That is simply ressentiment on the 
part of the privileged that the masses have dared to claim a place at the 
table. While Nietzsche and Scheler overstated the ressentiment of the weak, 
they understated, and mostly ignored, the ressentiment of the strong (includ- 
ing their own: Nietzsche bitterly resented the weak, and sounds more 
resentful than they do). Nietzsche and Scheler did not place the real, perva- 
sive injustice of their own day at the center of the canvas on which they 
painted their picture of the world. Each in his own way celebrated the 
virtues of classical antiquity that accorded powerful and talented men a 
privileged standing, relegating women and laborers to inferior status. This, 
too, is will-to-power, and unwillingness to share it. 

In the same way, some wave the ressentiment banner today in order 
to stifle legitimate protest. The banner wavers themselves are, paradoxically, 
resentful. They resent handicapped people for getting the better parking 
places. They resent affirmative action; they resent brown people crossing 
their borders in search of jobs; they resent strong, outspoken women in the 
church and public life; they resent the unborn for interrupting their agendas; 
they resent old people for taking so long to die; they resent gays and 
lesbians for coming out; they resent the hungry and the homeless for 
demanding food, work, and housing. Unlike the underdogs, "important" 
people do not resent the strength of the strong but the dignity of the weak. 

We more commonly attribute ressentiment to the victims them- 
selves, however. Maybe that is why the K-word is falling from favor in some 
circles. Assigning the victim label can be condescending. Appropriating it 
can nurture ressentiment and passive self-pity. That does no one any good. 
But it is far worse to deny the objective reality to which "victim" refers. 
However much some would deny it, victims abound; and, while we are all 
victims (and victimizers) to some degree, degrees vary decisively. The rules 
of the economic and political game are sharply skewed to favor the power- 
ful. That calls for vigorous protest and action, whether some consider it 
politically correct or not. Neither does being a victim preclude responsible, 
self-directed action, or vice versa. 

At the same time, ressentiment does shadow the underdog. It 
latches, like a parasite, onto legitimate protest in the form of reverse preju- 
dice and the denial of real values. Ressentiment finds strong individuals and 
institutions intimidating. It erupts in anti-intellectual and anti-technological 
bias. Ressentiment believes that there is no hope for "whitey." It operates in 
the conviction that women are morally superior to men by nature. Ressenti- 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 15 



ment is present in an option for the poor that denies the humanity of the 
rich and disallows the possibility of their conversion. Ressentiment is at 
work when a poor country's government refuses outside assistance in time 
of natural disaster and in the rejection of every idea that originates in the 
rich North for reason of that origin alone. Ressentiment prefers carping and 
permanent protest to positive proposals. It shuns constructive engagement 
with adversaries. Ressentiment is at work in an anarchistic fear of institu- 
tions—businesses, churches, universities, NGOs, and governments — and in the 
inability to wrestle with their moral ambiguity. Ressentiment would uproot 
the weeds and risk killing the wheat rather than wade into the field that has 
been sown with both. 

In contrast, commitment can lead, for example, to a responsible 
decision to disengage or "drop out" of the rat race. It can lead to alternative 
schooling, communal living, civil disobedience, persecution, clandestine life, 
and jail. The history of reli- 
gious life and monasticism, 

the radical wing of the Protes- Ressentiment finds strong individuals 
tant Reformation, and many and institutions intimidating. It 

other religious and political erupts in anti-intellectual and anti- 

movements confirm the value technological bias. 

of disengagement. However, 

dropping out can also mask ^ ~~^~^~ 
narcissistic ressentiment, like 

the unwillingness to enter playing fields outside one's zone of mastery. The 
a priori refusal to engage powerful individuals and institutions when that 
might benefit me or my community disguises a sense of personal inadequacy 
and the subconscious acceptance of the values overtly scorned. 



Ressentiment is hard at work in the denial of the goodness in 
ourselves— the goodness of our bodies, the values of rest, sexuality, enjoy- 
ment, and celebration of the pleasures of life. More radical still is the 
ressentiment present in false humility which denies our inner authority and 
leads us to bury our talents. Ressentiment smolders below the surface in 
oppressed and humiliated people who more readily doubt themselves than 
the smooth-talking professionals. It leads them to stifle the impulse to act 
when they should, to shake off their chains. Ressentiment overlaps with 
Valerie Saiving's feminine syndrome: the neglect of rivals' real values (asser- 
tiveness, focused pursuit of objectives in the public arena, and so forth). 



16 * Dean Brackley, SJ. 



Facing Different Dangers at Once 

X~low are false humility, self-negation, and ressentiment related to the 
enemy's program in the Two Standards? 

It seems clear that riches-honors-pride still makes the world go 
'round and probably always will this side of paradise. However, that is not 
the only logic that threatens a life of commitment. It may help to compare 
the force of evil to water cascading down a hillside. If an individual or group 
successfully blocks the flow of water in the major downhill channel of 
riches-honors-pride, the current does not simply stop there. It seeks alterna- 
tive downhill routes, especially underground channels that are harder to 
detect. Ressentiment is a major downhill alternative. Within patriarchal 
societies shaped by the classic enemy standard of avarice, prestige, and the 
arrogant scramble to dominate, decent people can be led to strike a half- 
conscious deal with the social forces at hand. In the name of "humility" and 
"equality," they bury their talents, stifle their initiatives or limit themselves 
to carping from the sidelines. Others channel their resentful hostility toward 
people and institutions. Resentful victims do not eliminate the social pyra- 
mid. They turn it upside down, so that power itself, powerful people and all 
kinds of resented assets now become evil, even when found in oneself. 

The different temptation dynamics are not mutually exclusive. They 
can coexist and interact. Riches and prestige might dominate me, and I may 
dominate "less important" people; but I can at the same time bitterly resent 
stronger rivals. Alternatively, women suffering from Saiving's "feminine" 
complex can yield to greed and arrogant pride as easily as men. And greed 
and pride can cohabit with false humility precisely because it is counterfeit. 
Even as someone like Teresa Rejadell succumbs to false humility with 
"peers" and "superiors," she might turn around and smother the initiative of 
employees, spouse, and children. False humility and ressentiment easily 
cohabit with greed and arrogant pride. 

At different stages of their lives, people may fall prey to one 
dynamic more than others. But who ever entirely escapes the lure of greed? 
Who is safely vaccinated against arrogant pride in all its camouflaged forms? 
On the other hand, if riches, honors and pride govern my life, I may 
perhaps be less susceptible to burying my talent; but will I be invulnerable 
to ressentiment? 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul 4* 17 



Charting a Postmodern Path: Magnanimity 

I pray that, according to the riches of his glory, you may be strengthened in your 
inner being with power through his Spirit. 

-Eph. 3:16 

J. he riches-honors-pride strategy has lost none of its capacity to sabotage 
commitment in contemporary society. The children of this world still divide 
humanity into "important" and "unimportant" people on the basis of wealth 
and status symbols. They scramble up the social ladder. Even in our democ- 
racies, the few at the top of the social pyramid make the crucial decisions 
without the consent of the majority. In this context, the evangelical call to 
renunciation loses none of its validity, provided we avoid preaching poverty 
to the poor. Genuine humility remains as fundamental as ever. However, the 
corrosive power of ressentiment and false humility in contemporary society 
raises questions: Is the standard of Christ as Ignatius presented it the most 
appropriate program for ev- 
eryone today? Besides the fact ^^^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^— ^- ^-- 



that he would never promote Qn thg 0[her hand> { f riches> honors 

a uniform program for all, is ^ i . • » jr T 

. r • r i ii -i an " pride govern my life, I may 

it rruitlul to commend humil- , , , ., , 

, j i r i perhaps be less susceptible 

ity to people ensnared by raise , . r . , .„ _ , 

, -1- ii ir ' 3 to burying my talent; but will I be 

humility and low sell-esteem? tit 

What about insults? Ignatius invulnerable to ressentiment? 

encouraged his contemporaries ___ ^ __^^^^^ 
to welcome them as a privi- 
leged means to growth in humility. Are we to recommend humiliations to 
those who suffer from low self-esteem and have surrendered their agendas to 
others? Not ordinarily. But then, what kind of counter-strategy suits such 
people — that is, so many of us? 

As we saw, Ignatius grew up in a culture in which honor was a 
supreme value and a primary temptation for men and at least for women of 
distinction. Many of his companions, men and women, belonged to the 
petty, and not-so-petty, aristocracy and the professional classes. They had 
been socialized into a sense of self-importance relative to the common folk 
of the day. Ignatius knew from experience how humiliations could serve as 
blessings in disguise for such people, as occasions to free them from conceit 
and contempt for the "little people" and help them, the upper crust, toward 
a more realistic sense of self and solidarity, that is, to genuine humility. 

Our social situation is different; our personalities and temptations 
are configured in different ways. In modern societies, where people do not 



18 •$• Dean Brackley, SJ. 



derive their identity from fixed social roles, their personality structure is 
frequently less stable (or perhaps less rigid) and their sense of dignity more 
fragile. It is true that middle- and upper-class people today tend to harbor a 
partly conscious sense of superiority relative to poor people, to those with 
little formal education, to foreigners; and, if they are white, they harbor 
such attitudes relative to people of other races and, if they are men, relative 
to women. At the same time, modern individualism, pluralism, family 
breakdown, consumerism, and cutthroat competition engender widespread 
self-doubt and insecurity. 21 The bags under the eyes of the Doonesbury 
cartoon characters reflect the anxiety of our middle-class tribe. In this 
cultural context, humiliations generate more problems than solutions. 

Not that my own middle-class "tribe" is free from the temptation to 
honors. They— that is, we— may be less addicted to honors than the hidalgos 
of Ignatius's day; but we are more hooked on acceptance. We are afraid to 
disappoint; we need — too much— to please. Middle-class insecurities induce in 
members of the lonely crowd an exaggerated fear of rejection that clouds our 
vision and ties our hands. We recoil at the prospect of a confrontation with 
a stronger personality. We let what others might think or say define the 
parameters of our actions. Bohemian hairstyles, outfits, and acting out are 
the rebellion that confirms the rule. We members of the lonely crowd may 
not need humiliations; but we do need to get free from the paralyzing fear of them. 

Sometimes humiliation can foster authentic humility even now. 
This year the Catholic Church and its members have been publicly and 
profoundly humiliated. We have reason to hope that this awful experience 
will help purify the Church and lead to important reforms. The founder of 
Alcoholics Anonymous, Bill W., liked what Ignatius had to say about 
humiliations. He knew from experience how humiliation can shake alcohol- 
ics from tenaciously held illusions, helping them to "bottom out" and come 
to their senses. While some addictions may call for such strong medicine, 
most of our ordinary paralyses will probably respond to milder stuff. In any 
case, the liberation in question is a gift, a healing we cannot effect by 
ourselves. This is why Ignatius had people ask God not only to take away 
their fears of rejection, but even to send them what they feared most. This 



21 Our social world, too, is rife with insecurity. In his Consequences of Modernity 
(Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University, 1990), British sociologist Anthony Giddens claims 
that the globalization of risk has given the world a "menacing appearance." "The 
possibility of nuclear war, ecological calamity, uncontainable population explosion, the 
collapse of global economic exchange, and other potential global catastrophes provide an 
unnerving horizon of dangers for everyone" (125). The globalization of insecurity hit 
home in the U.S. with a vengeance on Sept. 11, 2001. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 19 



prayer (if not humiliations themselves) remains an effective remedy for those 
fears. 

Fragile modern egos need to cultivate what the ancients called 
"magnanimity" (in Greek, megalopsychia). The magnanimous person is, 
literally, a great-souled individual, an expansive spirit. With appropriate self- 
esteem and a realistic sense of their talents, great-hearted individuals refuse to 
bog down in trivia. They think big. Unperturbed by minor grievances, 
indifferent to the "trinkets" of wealth and status, they are spontaneously 
generous, even prodigal, the opposite of the stingy, shrunken soul. 22 

Magnanimity is the other side of the coin of humility, the antidote 
to false humility and ressentiment. Together, humility and magnanimity lay 
the foundation of love, with its unavoidable option for the poor. Love for 
the outcast is not a love of poverty or sickness, masking resentful denigra- 
tion of health, economic well-being, and those who enjoy them. Scheler 
wrote that genuine love 

has as its internal point of departure and its motivating force a powerful 
sentiment of the security, firmness, interior wholeness and invincible 
fullness of one's own existence and life; and from all this there arises a clear 
consciousness of being able to give something of one's own being and of 
one's own abundance. Here love, sacrifice, assistance, the tendency to seek 
out the most humble and the weakest, is a spontaneous overflow of the 
forces that accompany happiness and intimate repose. 

Genuine love and social protest do not spring from bitter frustration and 
masked impotence but from their opposites. Sacrifice is authentic only when 
it is a "free bestowal of one's own vital riches," wrote Scheler, "a beautiful 
and natural overflow of one's powers" for the sake of others. Jesus lavished 
his interior wealth in this way. He recommended carefree "indifference" to 
food, clothing, and shelter (see Luke 12:22-34), not because he denied their 
value, but because excessive worry about them eclipses the presence of God 
working to bring us abundant life. 23 

Ignatius was a paragon of magnanimous generosity. The magis 
means magnanimity: One always chooses what is more conducive to God's 
reign (SpEx 23), what is more universal and more divine (Constitutions of the 
Society of Jesus, no. 622). One should enter the Spiritual Exercises with 
magnanimous generosity (see SpEx 5). One ends them with the Contempla- 
tion for Attaining Love, which describes God's expansive love and our 



22 See Daley, "To Be More like Christ," 6 f., 36-39. I am modifying, even 
Christianizing, Aristotle's rather elitist portrait of the magnanimous individual. See 
Nicomachean Ethics, 1099a32-b5, 1122al8-1125al5. 

23 Scheler, Resentimiento, 90-93; emphases in original. 



20 * Dean Brackley, S.J. 



response in terms of the same magnanimous generosity ("Take, Lord, and 
receive ..."). According to the exercise on the Call of the King, it would 
be shameful and unworthy of a good knight to fail to respond wholeheart- 
edly to the call of a high-minded leader. How much more, then, ought we 
to spend ourselves entirely for Christ and his cause! (see SpEx 94-98). 
Ignatius allowed God to tame the virtues of the warrior and the leader in 
him and enlist them in generous service to Christ and his neighbor. 

The spirit of magnanimity has filled Jesus' followers and others like 
them over the centuries. Drawing on her inner strength, Catherine of Siena 
urged the Pope to return from Avignon to Rome, and made her sentiments 
public. Closer to our time, Mohandas Gandhi took on the British colonial 

government with magnanimous freedom. 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_^^^ His self-assurance enabled him to appreci- 
ate the humanity of his adversaries as 
We are afraid to disap- much as he detested the injustice of colo- 

Doint' we need too ni2L ^ ru ^ e - From prison Nelson Mandela 

much-to please. Middle- dealt Wlth South Africa ' s apartheid regime 

class insecurities induce in in a * im , llar f™\ Magnanimity enabled 

j r w ? / Rosa Parks to hold her ground at the front 

members of the lonely , . . . . , b . . . . „. 

, , r or the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in hi 

crowd an exaggerated tear c , , ,, , r a ^ 

d<=> J Salvador, a normally selr-erracing Oscar 

of rejection that clouds Romero trumpeted the truth each Sunday 

our vision and ties our from the pulpit> fully aware that he was 

bands. infuriating his violent enemies. 

Magnanimity draws us out of in- 
active complicity to take a stand when 
that is called for. Martin Luther King said that the decent but silent bystand- 
ers, especially the church people, exasperated him more than the racists who 
threw rocks. Cultivating magnanimity should leave fewer decent people on 
history's sidelines in the future. 



Like our better-known forebears, we too are summoned to make 
history in our own way. We are called to find our voices among other 
voices, some strident and contrary; to take initiatives while taking others' 
initiatives into account; to assume our rightful places in the world, neither 
bullying the weak nor cowering before the strong. We are called to speak 
and act with boldness (parrhesia), as the early Christians did. 24 "God did not 
give us a spirit of cowardice" (2 Tim. 1:7). 



24 See, for example, 2 Cor. 3:12, 17, and Acts 4:13, 29, 31; 9:27-29; 13:46; 14:3; 
18:25 f.; 19:8; 26:26; 28:31. 



Expanding the Shrunken Soul •!• 21 



We need to help each other with this, especially poor and abused 
people. This will mean taking people seriously when they themselves fail to 
do so. It will mean listening to them. Their own stories are sometimes all 
they have to share. People often need help discovering their voice and 
encouragement to speak and act. Encouragement might take the form of 
affirming appropriate anger and assertiveness when people repress these 
unduly in themselves. It might mean challenging fearful silence, inaction, and 
self-effacement when the circumstances call for their opposites. These ways 
of "helping souls" can be a challenge when people translate their low self- 
esteem into ressentiment. 

In the Church we need to redress the historic exaggeration of law at 
the expense of the Spirit. The Christian vocation to live according to the 
Spirit requires practicing the virtue of epikeia. Epikeia is the ability to 
recognize when keeping the 

letter of the law would actu- 

ally violate the values that the 



precept is meant to uphold. Magnanimity draws us out of inac- 

Jesus practiced epikeia when- tive complicity to take a stand when 

ever obeying the precept that is called for. Martin Luther King 
would violate the spirit of sa id that the decent hut silent hy- 

justice and mercy. standers, especially the church people, 

We carry out our exasperated him more than the racists 
mission today in a context of who threw rocks. 

spreading violence and war, 

cynicism in government, cor- mmmmm ^ ~~ ~^^^^^^^^~^^^^^^^~""~" 
porate corruption, sex-abuse 

scandals and urban loneliness. These are more than enough to induce the 
contagious desolation that shrinks the soul. But, as Jesuits especially, we 
must resist desolation (see SpEx 319-26). The signs of the times and our 
recent documents call us to respond to today's needs by evangelizing, 
including promoting justice and peace, defending the environment, interreli- 
gious dialog and inculturation. This will require opening our institutions 
(our parish, school, agency) to new initiatives, thinking beyond present 
commitments and beyond our province, our nation, and our Church. These 
daunting challenges certainly ought to inspire humility, but the true humil- 
ity that produces imagination and bold action. 



22 * Dean Brackley, S.J. 



Back and Forward 

J. his paper extends some reflections, begun years ago, on what it takes to 
stay committed in these confusing times and how to avoid the pitfalls that 
prevent people from doing all the good they might. During those years, I 
have come to value something else that seems to me indispensable for 
staying on track over the long haul: an appreciation of the ironies of life. A 
robust sense of humor can go a long way in unifying the apparent opposites, 
humility and magnanimity, into a working synthesis. In that case, our 
service to others will need 

• magnanimity: a sense of inner fullness and appreciation of our own 
dignity (and how God can work through us) 

• humility: a sense (interior knowledge) of our limits and of the 
dignity of the outcast 

• a sense of humor: an appreciation of the ironies of life, especially our 
own 



♦ 



Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 

1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 

2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 

2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 

3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 

3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 

3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 

3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 

4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 

4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 

4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 

5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan.-Mar. 1973) 

5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 

5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 

6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 

7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 

7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 

7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 

7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 

8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 

8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 

8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 

9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
(Jan.-Mar. 1977) 

9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 

9/5 Gill, A Jesuits Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 

10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 

11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 

11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 

11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 

12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 

12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 

12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -Nov. 
1980) 

13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 



14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 

1983) 

15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nodal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 

1984) 

16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

16/5 Kinerk, Eliciting Great Desires: Their Place in the Spirituality of the Society of Jesus (Nov. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celibacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 



25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (Jan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/2 Veale, Saint Ignatius Speaks about "Ignatian Prayer'' (March 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but ... (or So . . . J?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fullam, Juana, S.J: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Parsons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 



m®m,-. ■ mmmm 




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1 



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: : : : : 



*:>:•. 



Marian Cowan, C.S. J., and 
John Carroll Futrell, S.J. 



Roberto de Nobili, S.J. 

(Trans. Anand Amaladass, S.J., and Francis X. Clooney, S.J.) 

Preaching Wisdom to the Wise 
Three Treatises by Roberto de Nobili, S.J. 

How should the Christian faith be communicated to a 
non-European culture? Roberto de Nobili was one of 
the earliest Jesuit missionaries to address this question. 
This book gives three of de Nobili' s treatises, classic 
early examples of a move toward what would now be 
called "inculturation," as well as an introduction by the 
translators that both critiques de Nobili 's approach and 
appreciates his greatness. 

Paper ISBN 1-880810-37-9 
pp. xxii + 345: $29.95 



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Companions in Grace 

A Handbook for Directors of the Spiritual 
Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola 

A guide and companion for those who direct others in 
making the Spiritual Exercises. A new edition of a 1980 
classic, by two outstanding experts in the field. Each of 
the four Weeks of the Exercises is treated in detail, and 
the book includes sections on Ignatius's rule for dis- 
cernment, directing an eight-day retreat, the 
nineteenth-annotation retreat, annotation eighteen, and 
more. 

Paper ISBN 1-880810-38-7 
pp. vii + 249: $18.95 



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The Road from 
La Storta 

Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., 
on Ignatian Spirituality 



"The vision of La Storta has not been given to us 
so that we might stop to gaze at it. No, it is the 
light in which the Jesuit regards the whole world." 

These words are from a homily on the anniver- 
sary of St. Ignatius's vision at La Storta. Father 
Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, superior general of the 
Society of Jesus, challenges Jesuits and their 
associates to consider their mission as they follow 
Ignatius along the road from La Storta into the 
wide world. In this collection of twenty essays, 
Father Kolvenbach proposes ways of understand- 
ing this mission from spiritual, analytical, and 
socio-pastoral perspectives. 



xv + 300 pages $28.95 

ISBN 1-880810-40-9 plus postage 



Images and Emblems from the Early Jesuit 
Tradition to Use in Desktop Publishing or 

on the Web 



by 

Thomas Rochford, S.J., 
and J. J. Mueller, S.J. 



A collection of 239 royalty-free images already 
formatted for Windows and Macintosh 



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